As an integral part of the construction of the external protective structure, doors and windows, regardless of whether it is a high-grade building or an ordinary house, have given different construction functions and requirements. As long as you are satisfied with the effects of construction, rain, lighting, ventilation, thermal insulation, sound insulation, etc., you can provide comfortable and quiet indoor environment and fulfill the requirements of sustainable social development. Aluminum alloy doors and windows are the most widely used type of doors and windows. Here are some basic ideas and opinions on how to plan the aluminum alloy doors and windows that satisfy the construction requirements and functions.
First, the construction of doors and windows
The doors and windows are the built units, which are the decoration symbols of the facade effect, and finally show the characteristics of the construction. Although there are different requirements for the planning of doors and windows, the doors and windows are very diverse, but it is still possible to find some rules.
1. The facade of the door and window should be adapted to the aesthetic characteristics. When planning the grid, consider the following elements.
(1) Coordination of the division of the division. As far as a single glass plate is concerned, the aspect ratio is as close as possible to the golden section ratio. It is not suitable to plan a narrow rectangle with a square and an aspect ratio of 1:2 or more. The height of the bright element is usually 1/4~1/5 of the frame height, which should not be too Big or too small;
(2) The facades of doors and windows must have certain rules, but also change performance, and seek rules in the change; the lines of the divisions are dense; the distances and equal scales show rigor, severity, and severity; From the free division, it shows rhythm, vividness and movement;
(3) At least the same room, the horizontal wall of the same wall and door should be placed on the same horizontal line as possible, and the vertical lines should be aligned as much as possible;
(4) When planning the facade of the door and window, it is necessary to consider the overall effect requirements of the construction, such as the virtual and real comparison, the effect of light and shadow, and the symmetry.
2. Selection of color of doors and windows (including the color of glass and profiles) The color matching of doors and windows is the main link that affects the final effect of construction. The color of doors and windows should be matched with the construction characteristics. When determining the color, it should be constructed with planners and owners. And so on.
3. Personalized planning of doors and windows It is possible to plan a common facade façade according to the customer's different hobbies and aesthetics.
4. Permeability of doors and windows Door and window façades are best placed within the height of the field of view of the main view (1.5m ~ 1.8m). Do not set the horizontal frame and mullion to prevent obstructing the view. Some windows and doors require high-transparency glass, which may require a large open field of view for easy viewing of outdoor views.
5. The ventilation area of the doors and windows and the ventilation area of the ventilation doors and windows and the number of movable fans should be satisfied with the construction ventilation requirements; the lighting area of the doors and windows should also be satisfied with the requirements of the “Building Lighting Planning Standards” (GB/T50033-2001) and the requirements of the construction plan. . Rule 4.2.4 of the “Public Energy Conservation Planning Standards for Public Buildings” (GB50189-2005): The area ratio of the window walls facing each of the external windows should not exceed 0.70. When the window area ratio is less than 0.40, the visible light transmittance of the glass should not be less than 0.4.
Second, door and window safety planning
1. Door and window aluminum profile wall thickness requirements
The wall thickness of the aluminum profile for the window conforms to the current national standard high-precision level, and the minimum wall thickness of the stressed member is ≥1.4mm.
The door and window stress rods (such as the light hook of the sliding window, the middle column, the belt sliding down, the bright upper sliding, the double front, etc.) need to be subjected to strict compression calculation. When the profile is used as the force rod, the profile wall The thickness should be selected according to the operating conditions. The components of aluminum alloy doors and windows shall be determined by experiment or accounting.
2. Door and window glass safety planning (1) Selection of glass: The thickness of glass is determined by accounting and should not be less than 5mm. It is necessary to use safety glass (tempered glass or laminated glass) for the construction of doors and windows in the following parts: (a) 7th and 7th floors to build external windows; (b) Window glass with an area of more than 1.5m2; (c) Glass bottom edge After all, the floor-to-ceiling windows with a decorative surface of less than 500mm; (d) a slanted window with a horizontal angle of less than 75° and a roof of more than 3m from the indoor floor; (e) a framed glass door with a glass area greater than 0.5m2; (f) no frame The glass door should be made of tempered glass with a thickness of not less than 10 mm.
(2) The amount of overlap between glass and notch and other cooperation scales shall be in accordance with the rules of Tables 5 and 6 of “Aluminum Alloy Window” (GB/T8479).
(3) Glass and aluminum alloy frame slots should be made of rubber gaskets for flexible touch.
(4) The glass should be mechanically edging, and the number of grinding wheels should be above 180 mesh.
3. Selection and planning of hardware accessories.
(1) When selecting hardware accessories, try to select the products with guaranteed quality. The quality grade of hardware accessories should be consistent with the quality grade of doors and windows. The structure and shape of the hardware components should be consistent with the profiles, the color coordination is beautiful, the function is accurate, The operation is sensitive and the device is convenient.
(2) Hardware accessories should be complete, standardized, reliable, and accurate. After the installation, the doors and windows are beautiful in appearance, open and sensitive, and free from deformation, blockage and collision.
(3) Stainless steel products should be preferred for the exposed fasteners of hardware accessories.
(4) When sliding doors and windows and large sliding doors and windows are closed, multiple lock points should be used. Otherwise, the air tightness will be greatly reduced under the effect of negative pressure difference. It is convenient to operate and use the multi-lock handle or actuator. .
(5) The length of the swing window sliding stay is usually 2/3 of the width of the window sash. If the sash is lighter, it can be 1/2. The length of the sliding bracket of the upper hanging window is usually 1/2 of the sash.
(6) The hurricane area and the high-rise building are constructed with externally opened windows. The sash fan advocates the use of sliding brackets, and there is no need to use hinges.
4. The amount of overlap between the sliding door and window sash and the upper and lower frame guide rails should be no less than 10mm, and it is necessary to install safety measures such as anti-drop block and anti-collision block to prevent the window fan from falling and opening and colliding.
5. The height of the lower frame of the movable fan window shall be not less than 900mm. In special cases, if it is less than 900mm, other protective safety measures (such as adding protective railings) should be adopted.
6. It is necessary to select excellent stainless steel products for the screws and bolts used for the connection of aluminum alloy doors and windows to prevent the screws from loosening due to galvanic corrosion. Stainless steel screws should be machine-threaded as much as possible. Try to prevent the use of self-tapping screws. The screw connection is best planned to be sheared.
7. Doors and windows should be firmly connected with the wall. Fixed connection between door and window and wall. There are mainly steel frame connection, dovetail iron foot welding connection, dovetail iron foot and embedded parts, fixed steel piece nail connection, fixed steel sheet metal expansion Several types of bolts are connected. The thickness of the dovetail iron feet should be ≥3mm. Fixed steel sheet thickness ≥1.5mm, width ≥15mm. All the dovetail iron feet and the fixed steel sheet shall be hot dip galvanized. The distance between the door and the window is usually between 300mm and 500mm, and can not be greater than 500mm.
(1) The steel frame is suitable for the connection between doors and windows and various walls. The precision of the device is high and the connection is firm, but the cost is high.
(2) The connection between the door and window and the steel structure can be selected by welding the dovetail iron foot. The connection between the dovetail iron foot and the steel structure is adjusted by welding with steel bars or steel corners.
(3) The connection between the door and window and the light wall should be selected by welding the dovetail iron foot and the embedded part. The iron feet of the dovetail and the embedded parts are welded and adjusted by steel bars or steel corners.
(4) The connection between doors and windows and reinforced concrete walls can be connected by fixed steel sheets (or dovetail iron feet) or metal expansion bolts. When fixed steel sheets are used to secure the doors and windows, the gap between the frame and the wall near the doors and windows should be cement mortar plugs. The cement mortar plug can make the door and window frame and the wall firmly and firmly connected, and plays the main reinforcement effect on the frame of the door and window. When the gap is filled with polyurethane foam sealant or other flexible materials, the fixed steel sheet should be replaced with dovetail iron feet to ensure the connection and fixing of the door and window and the wall.
(5) The connection between the door and window and the brick wall can be connected by a fixed steel piece (or dovetail iron foot) metal expansion bolt. It is forbidden to use nails to fix doors and windows on the brick wall. The same as the reinforced concrete wall, when the fixed steel sheet is selected, the joint should be cement mortar plug. When the gap is filled with polyurethane foam sealant or other flexible materials, the dovetail iron feet should be used for fixing.
Third, aluminum alloy doors and windows waterproof seal planning
1. Aluminum alloy door and window watertight function minimum control target The minimum target of aluminum alloy door and window watertight function can be valued by the following type and not less than 150Pa (that is, the watertight function of aluminum alloy doors and windows cannot be lower than the level 2 target): P=k×μz×μs ×wo where P: watertightness planning value (Pa); wo: fundamental wind pressure (N/m2); μz: wind pressure height variation coefficient; μs: body shape coefficient, may take 1.2; k: coefficient, coastal tropical storm and The k value of the hurricane area is 0.3, and the other local area is 0.25.
2. Door and window structure waterproof planning
(1) The principle of equal pressure is actively used in the planning of aluminum alloy doors and windows, which is the most effective way to improve the waterproof sealing function of doors and windows.
(2) The amount of overlap between the movable fan and the window frame should not be too small. The amount of overlap between the movable window and the window frame of the casement window should not be less than 6mm.
(3) High-rise construction, icy area and high energy-saving areas, try to use the flat-type door and window construction method, with little or no push-pull type of door and window construction. Because there is a large gap between the sliding window and the upper and lower sliding rails, and the two adjacent sashes are not in the same plane, there is no sealing pressing force between the two sashes, but the overlapping laps are only based on the tops. There is a gap between the tops, and the sealing effect is very weak, so the waterproof sealing function of the sliding door and window is very poor. The sliding door and window sash and the window frame are provided with 2 to 3 sealing rubber strip seals. After the sash is closed and locked, the sealing rubber strip is pressed tightly, and the central cavity is simple to form an equal pressure chamber, thereby enabling Plan out the doors and windows that have excellent sealing functions.
(4) The aluminum alloy glass pressure line of the door and window device glass should be planned in the indoor direction to prevent the fine gap between the glass pressure line and the window frame from seeping.
(5) Push-pull type door and window sliding indoor side should plan a high enough water retaining plate, otherwise when the outdoor rain water has a certain pressure, the rain will skip the water baffle into the room.
(6) The upper part of the door and window movable fan shall be provided with a water-repellent board, and the lower part shall be provided with a drainage hole.
(7) The combination of doors and windows should be as small as possible to reduce the seams, and leakage can occur due to the inability to use a sealant seal for slim slits. When the seam is not prevented due to structural factors, the two touch faces of the profile at the seam are 90°, which is convenient for sealing the sealant.
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